The Cable

Senators tell Obama not to let Iran use talks to avoid pressure

If the Obama administration wants to enter new talks with Iran, that's fine -- but they had better keep ramping up the pressure on the Islamic Republic during negotiations and not trade sanctions for piecemeal concessions from the Iranians, 12 U.S. senators said Wednesday.

"As the P-5+1 prepares to resume talks with Iran, we strongly believe that any hope for diplomatic progress with Iran depends upon a continuing and expanding campaign of U.S. and international pressure on the regime and that such pressure must continue until there is a full and complete resolution of all components of illicit Iranian nuclear activities," said Sens. Bob Menendez (D-NJ), Jim Risch (R-ID), Joe Lieberman (I-CT), John McCain (R-AZ), Richard Blumenthal (D-CT), Kelly Ayotte (R-NH), Kirsten Gillibrand (D-NY), Marco Rubio (R-FL), Ben Cardin (D-MD), Pat Toomey (R-PA), Chuck Schumer (D-NY) and Lindsey Graham (R-SC) in a joint statement Wednesday.

"As we recently wrote to President Obama, we remain extremely concerned that the Iranian government will seek to buy time or otherwise dilute the focus of our diplomacy through proposals that either suspend or reverse the current momentum of the pressure track in exchange for partial measures that fail to address the totality of their nuclear program," the senators' statement continued. "Such tactical maneuverings are a dangerous distraction and should not be tolerated. For instance, we would strongly oppose any proposal that caps or limits sanctions against the Iranian regime in exchange for anything less than full, verifiable, and sustained suspension of all enrichment activities, including both 3 percent and 20 percent enrichment."

When Iran offered to come back to talks last month, these 12 senators were quick to put together a letter outlining their precise concerns and what they wanted to see President Barack Obama's administration do.

In addition to continuing along the pressure track, they want the administration to insist that Iran suspend all enrichment-related and reprocessing activities "for the foreseeable future," cooperate with the International Atomic Energy Agency, and resolve all outstanding questions about military dimensions of its nuclear program. The Obama administration has said repeatedly that Iran has the right to enrich uranium for peaceful purposes, but these 12 senators don't agree.

EU High Representative for Foreign Affairs Catherine Ashton, in her March 6 letter welcoming new talks, acknowledged that the P5+1 countries - Britain, China, France, Russia, the United States, and Germany -- will engage in discussions over confidence-building measures to the Iranian government.

"We remain convinced that initially we could work towards the shared objective to engage in a constructive dialogue on the basis of reciprocity and a step by step approach based on practical and specific suggestions for confidence building measures," she wrote.

But the senators think that is foolish, and want to emphasize that the administration should not trade the relaxation of sanctions for partial measures by the Iranians, which they see as a delaying tactic.

"Such tactical maneuverings are a dangerous distraction and should not be tolerated," the senators wrote. "For instance, we would strongly oppose any proposal that caps or limits sanctions against the Iranian regime in exchange for anything less than full, verifiable, and sustained suspension of all enrichment activities, including both 3 percent and 20 percent enrichment. The time for confidence building measures is over."

The Cable

Clinton and Michelle Obama to honor women activists

Ten remarkable women from around the world who have played a significant role in the struggle for women's rights will be honored at the State Department Thursday in the first of a series of women's empowerment events Secretary of State Hillary Clinton is holding this week.

Clinton and First Lady Michelle Obama will host the International Women of Courage Awards at State's Foggy Bottom headquarters to honor 10 women from 10 different countries where the fight for gender equality rages. Two female Nobel Peace Prize laureates, Yemeni dissident Tawakkol Karman and former Liberian President Leymah Gbowee, will also be on hand for the event.

The awardees, all of whom will be in attendance, include Maryam Durani, a Provincial Council member from Kandahar, Afghanistan, who has survived multiple attempts on her life; Zin Mar Aung, a Burmese civil society activist who spent 11 years in prison; and Samar Badawi, the first Saudi Arabian woman to sue the Saudi government for the right to choose her own husband and was also imprisoned.

"It's a real focus on women as agents of change, women as leaders, and this is a really courageous group," said Melanne Verveer, the State Department's ambassador for Global Women's Issues, in an interview with The Cable. Verveer held a press conference about the event Wednesday afternoon at the Capitol with Sens. Barbara Boxer (D-CA) and Jeanne Shaheen (D-NH).

The awardees were selected from hundreds of nominations submitted by U.S. embassies around the world. Verveer said the awards are meant to recognize the women's accomplishments, but also provide them with increased credibility and power to continue their work back home.

"These awards are validating in many ways," she said. "The awardees are taken more seriously, they're not as marginalized as some may have been. It gives them enormous credibility on the international stage."

The Thursday event is only the first of several events this week that Clinton will participate in to celebrate Women's History Month.

On Friday, Clinton will announce the winners of the first Innovation Award for the Empowerment of Women and Girls, a new program State is running -- in conjunction with the Rockefeller Foundation -- to support women-focused technology start ups. The winners will each receive $500,000 from the foundation to take their entrepreneurial ventures to the next level.

Then on Saturday, Clinton will deliver the keynote address at the Women in the World conference in New York, an annual event organized by Daily Beast and Newsweek chief Tina Brown and including Angelina Jolie and Meryl Streep.

Verveer sees progress in the struggle for political and economic equality for women worldwide, although "enormous challenges" still remain.

"Today we know that women's economic participation says a lot about whether a country is going to be economically prosperous," she said. "All these things are beginning to create a picture of why this is both the right thing to do and the smart thing to do."